The WHA has the authority to adopt regulations concerning sanitary and quarantine requirements and other procedures designed to prevent the international spread of disease; nomenclatures for disease, causes of death, and public health practices; standards for international diagnostic procedures; standards for the safety, purity, and potency of biological, pharmaceutical, and similar products moving in international commerce; and the advertising and labeling of biological, pharmaceutical, and similar products moving in international commerce.
It is also empowered to take emergency measures in case of epidemics or disasters. The Secretariat comprises the Director-General and roughly eight thousand other technical and administrative staff. The WHO departments most directly concerned with responding to health emergencies, including infectious disease epidemics or pandemics, are described below. The Health Systems and Innovation HSI Department covers the areas of essential medicines and health products; health statistics and information systems HSIS ; health systems governance and financing; health workforce; knowledge, ethics and research; service delivery and safety; and the WHO Centre for Health Development, Kobe.
The WHO has six main priorities for providing leadership.
These include universal health coverage; health-related Millennium Development Goals; noncommunicable diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and mental health disorders; social, economic, and environmental determinants; access to medical products; and the International Health Regulations In addition, they provide for a series of health documents, such as ship sanitation certificates and an international certificate of vaccination or prophylaxis for travelers.
In , the WHO established an Outbreak Verification System to gather information, verify reports of, and track infectious disease outbreaks. Member states were urged to take action to enhance, support, and strengthen national, regional, and international efforts to address the SARS outbreak.
The Director-General was requested to take measures falling within the infectious diseases group and take into account reports from sources other than official notification; to alert the international community to the presence of a public threat that may constitute a serious threat to neighboring countries or to international health; and to collaborate with national authorities in assessing the severity of the threat and the adequacy of control measures, and, when necessary, in conducting on-the-spot studies by a WHO team, with the purpose of ensuring that appropriate control measures were being employed.
At the time, an adequate point-of-care diagnostic test was still not available for SARS and remained a top priority.
This plan was last revised in  and contains the WHO phases of pandemic alert. The PIP Framework applies to influenza viruses with human pandemic potential, such as H5N1; it does not apply to seasonal flu viruses, noninfluenza pathogens, or other biological material that may be contained in clinical specimens shared under the Framework.
In , humans were found for the first time to have been infected with the avian influenza A H7N9 virus. Since providing the first notification of such an infection in late March , China has been reporting to the WHO on cases of subsequent human infection with the virus.
Historically, the U. In , Congress first appropriated funds to the U. NTD efforts. Collectively, U.
Jan 21, Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Neglected Tropical Diseases: Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD): Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress. Front Cover. Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. DIANE Publishing, - Chagas' .
Having scaled up from five countries in , it now spans 25 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, and has one regional program, which reaches an additional six countries in the Americas. Using interventions such as the rapid-impact package, the USG supports endemic countries in scaling up MDA and developing their capacity to manage NTD control programs.
Translational time lines: the need for future tools. In this article Close Abstract 1. While the NTD community is committed to its targets, WHA resolutions and the Roadmap, these perhaps optimistic projections assume a stable political environment in some of the least accessible and stable areas; a degree of environmental stability in the face of the evidence that the frequency of severe climate events will increase and a stable biological status of adaptable parasites facing selective pressures through the widespread use of donated drugs and insecticide resistance in vector-borne infections, notably vectors of dengue and Anopheles vectors of filaria where filariasis and malaria are co-endemic and there is resistance in Anopheles. Treatment of gambiense sleeping sickness in the Sudan with oral DFMO DL-aplha-difluoromethylornithine , an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase; first field trial. Montresor , and A.
Figure 1: U. Over the past decade, U. Today, U. NTD efforts are an important part of the U.
Looking ahead, there are several issues and challenges facing U. NTD efforts, starting with questions about the extent to which the current Administration will continue to support ongoing efforts, particularly in light of its budget proposal to significantly reduce NTD funding, but also including:.
Peter Hotez, et al. For example, young children are the principal reservoir of trachoma infection, and due to the role of women as caretakers of children, there is an increased likelihood of being infected with trachoma multiple times. Women are up to 4 times more likely to be blinded by trachoma than men.
Other USG efforts may reach additional countries. Per Jesse L. The goal for Priority Review applications for products that offer major advances in treatment, or provide a treatment when no adequate therapy exists, is to complete them within a six-month period, compared to the month goal for standard review of other products. If transferred to apply to a blockbuster drug, the four months of earlier market access available when a Priority Review voucher is redeemed could, in some circumstances, be very valuable.
Through FY Foreign Assistance Dashboard website, ForeignAssistance. The U. Key Facts Neglected tropical diseases NTDs are a set of infectious diseases grouped together due to their often chronic, disfiguring, and stigmatizing impact; their close association with poverty; and their geographic overlap. Neglected Tropical Diseases NTDs : A group of parasitic, bacterial, and viral infectious diseases that primarily affect the most impoverished and vulnerable populations in the world and, as such, have received scant attention until the past decade.
Topics Global Health Policy.